Under s 93T of the Crimes Act 1900 (NSW), it is an offence to participate in a criminal group.  S 93T was introduced in 2006 in a raft of reforms to criminalise gang participation and related activity following the Cronulla riots. According to the NSW Parliament, the offences were enacted in recognition “that crimes committed by gangs, whether they be crimes of violence, armed robberies or drug supply offences, are a far greater threat to the safety and wellbeing of the community than most crimes committed by individuals acting alone”.


What is a criminal group?

A criminal group is defined as a group of 3 or more people who have an objective to:

  • obtain material benefits from conduct that constitutes a serious indictable offence, or
  • commit serious violence offences, such as conduct resulting in the loss of life or serious risk to life, serious injury (or risk of injury) to a person, serious damage to property in which a person’s safety is endangered, or perverting the course of justice in relation to such conduct.

When is it an offence to participate in a criminal group?

Participating in a criminal group is against the law if you know, or ought reasonably to know that it is a criminal group, or that your participation in the group contributes to criminal activity. The maximum penalty for participating is 5 years’ imprisonment.

However, if you direct any of the activities of the group, the maximum penalty doubles to 10 years’ imprisonment. The penalty increases further if you direct a group and the activities of the group are organised or ongoing.

In November last year, the NSW Parliament amended the law to state that you can still be classed as participating in a criminal group even if you are not a member of the group.

Specific offences committed as part of a criminal group

While it is an offence to simply ‘participate’ in a criminal group, the law also provides penalties for certain conduct of groups.

Destroying or damaging property belonging to another person, intending by that action to participate in a criminal activity of such a group, carries a maximum penalty of 10 years’ imprisonment, while assaulting a law enforcement officer (in the same circumstances) carries 14 years’ imprisonment.

If you receive material benefit derived from criminal activities of the group, knowing that it is a criminal group, a maximum penalty of 5 years’ imprisonment can apply.

Recruiting people to engage in criminal activity

Under s 351A of the Crimes Act 1900 (NSW), it is also an offence to recruit people to engage in criminal activity. The maximum penalty is 7 years’ imprisonment. The maximum penalty increases to 10 years’ imprisonment if you recruit a child to participate in criminal activity.

We can help

If you have been charged with a criminal offence, you can contact the team at Hamilton Janke Lawyers 24/7 by calling 4038 1666.

Written By
James Janke
James Janke

James Janke is founding partner at Hamilton Janke Lawyers, and has more then decade of experience as a Criminal Defence Lawyer. Admitted to both the Supreme Court of New South Wales and High Court of Australia

Reviewed By
Drew Hamilton
Drew Hamilton

Drew Hamilton is founding partner at Hamilton Janke Lawyers. Admitted to the Supreme Court of New South Wales as a Solicitor and also listed on the High Court of Australia register.